Water is required for a wide range of processes in the resource sector and is instrumental to the oil and gas and mining industries. Water often provides a cost and energy-efficient way to transport materials between processes and supply or mix chemicals required for various applications. It is the most convenient medium for separating minerals from host rocks, and is a vital component of many chemical processes. Water is also instrumental for the hydraulic fracturing (or fraccing) underpinning Australia’s growing unconventional oil and gas industry. Water used for or created as a byproduct in the resources sector must be effectively managed, and some cases, such as mine dewatering, water also needs to be extracted so that it does not impede activities.