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Trenchless technologies offer attractive alternatives to open trench methods for installing and rehabilitating pipelines and other underground sewer and water network infrastructure. These technologies enable the repair, rehabilitation or replacement of buried pipelines with minimal excavation and surface disruption. Trenchless construction techniques are often more efficient and accurate than open trench methods and can also be more cost-effective. Such techniques also allow construction or rehabilitation to occur underneath existing surface infrastructure such as roads, buildings and parks. Trenchless pipeline installation or rehabilitation is also frequently more environmentally friendly, with lower emissions and reduced environmental impacts. Trenchless construction techniques include microtunnelling, horizontal directional drilling (HDD) pipe ramming, pipe jacking, moling, horizontal auger boring (HAB) and others. Types of trenchless rehabilitation include sliplining, thermoformed pipe, pipe bursting, shotcrete, gunite, cured-in-place pipe, grout-in-place pipe, mechanical spot repair, and others.